top


feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC


feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

feri TOC

Gula, Queen of Physicians

compiled by valerie walker
©2005-06

Area/people: Sumer
Titles: The Great Physician, Queen of Physicians, Lady of Birth and Mother of Dogs, "the lady who restores to life"
Field of influence: The internal heat of the earth. Healing, therapeutic arts; Goddess who wrote a man's destiny at his birth, was petitioned to change this destiny, to heal diseases and to prolong lives. Patron of physicians; Goddess of inflicted illness and restored health. Also associated with the underworld; possibly a former death goddess. Could cure or cause sickness.
As Gulu, has a prominent role in incantations and incantation rituals intended to relieve those suffering from disease. May have had other functions earlier, probably political, since in the very early days of Sumerian civilization, when the position of lugal (often roughly translated as 'king') was elective, the elections were held in the temple of Gula. Invoked to curse those who trample upon the rights of rulers or those who do wrong with poisonous potions.
Other names/ epithets/earlier goddesses with whom Gula was syncretized: Bau, Bawa, Belit-Illu, Belitis, Damkina, Damgalnunna, Gam-Tum-Dug, Gula, Gulu, Innini, Ki, Meme, Ninisina, Ninisunna, Ninka, Ninkarrak, Ninki, Ninlil, Ninmah, Nintinuga, Nintu, Nm-din-dug
Consort: Ninurta, Ninurtu (Ningirsu), Ninib (sun-god), Pabilsag, Abu, moon man
Legends: Helped breathe life into mankind after the Great Flood. In the early days, before the Flood, Gula married Pablisag, the tutelary god of Larak. After seeing the terrible destruction wrought by the Flood and losing her husband to the Netherworld, Gula became interested in caring for the sick and wounded in the Great Above.
Parentage: as Gulu, daughter of Anu and Antu
Children: Gula and Pablisag had a son named Damu, a god of healing, and a daughter named Gunura
First mentioned: 4,500 B.C.E.
Appearance: A mature goddess, stocky and short in stature. Her black hair was straight and held in place by a gold circlet inset with pieces of carnelian. She wore a full-length robe of bleached wool with long sleeves. The goddess Gulu, (the earth-goddess, mother goddess; also Ninmah, goddess of the underworld) sits below ground with her dog, where the cosmic serpent begins to rise. She is the patroness of herbs, healing, life, as her flowered garment shows. Hands lifted in prayer, she sits with her dog, defender of homes, while before her a Scorpion Archer mounts guard at the uttermost bound of the earth (cosmic sea), to defend against demonic powers and protect the rising and setting sun.
Mystic Number: 93
Day: September 19; Ninurta and Gulu's wedding feast was celebrated on New Year's day.
Animal: Dog/Bitch; it is uncertain whether Gula was imagined as having canine form or the dog was sacred to her, since the antiseptic action of a dog's tongue in licking wounds was early recognized. She was sometimes addressed as Bawa, which may have been either a name or an epithet, and could have been onomatopoeic ('bow-wow').
Occupying a threshold between the world of the living and the dead, a faithful friend and guardian of Hades, the dog can symbolize a connection between consciousness and the unconscious.
Herb/s: Tarragon, Bay